Was ancient egypt a theocracy
Sacred Science: The King of Pharaonic Theocracy by R.A. Schwaller de LubiczKnown to English readers primarily for his work in uncovering the spiritual and cosmological insights of ancient Egypt. In books like Esotericism and Symbol, The Temple in Man, Symbol and the Symbolic, The Egyptian Miracle, and the monumental The Temple of Man--whose long awaited English translation has finally appeared--Schwaller de Lubicz argued, among other things, that Egyptian civilization is much older than orthodox Egyptologists suggest, a claim receiving renewed interest through the recent work of Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval.
If his view of Egyptian antiquity wasnt enough to place him securely beyond the pale, he also argued that the core of ancient Egyptian culture was a fundamental insight into the laws of creation. Everything about Egyptian civilization, from the construction of the pyramids to the shape of a beer mug, de Lubicz claimed to be motivated by a central metaphysical vision about the nature of cosmic harmony and an awareness of humanitys place in the evolution of consciousness. As his translator Deborah Lawlor remarks (introduction to Nature Word 47), Schwaller de Lubiczs Egyptian studies are only a part of his overall work as a metaphysician and philosopher.
Born in Alsace-Lorraine, then part of Germany, René Schwaller grew up in a polyglot atmosphere. (He was later given the title de Lubicz by the Lithuanian poet and diplomat O. V. de Lubicz Milosz, for his efforts on behalf of Lithuania in the aftermath of World War I.) Alsace-Lorraine has oscillated between French and German rule many times since Schwallers birth, and this Franco-Germanic blend lends a curious characteristic to his work. As Christopher Bamford (introduction to Schwaller’s Study of Numbers 1) suggests, Schwaller thought in German, but wrote in French. Added to the inherent difficulties of expressing nonlinear, living insights in dead linear language, this odd combination places many obstacles before a first-time reader. As he wrote apropos the insights into functional consciousness, presented in his truly hermetic work, Nature Word (129): Nature had shown me a great mountain, crowned with a peak of immaculate whiteness, but she was unable to teach me the way leading to it.
Readers wishing to grasp Schwallers insights may feel that they, too, have found themselves at the foot of a very steep mountain. This challenging prospect would not have fazed Schwaller. He believed knowledge was the right only of those willing to make the effort to achieve it, the elite who would endure suffering in their pursuit of wisdom. This sensibility influenced his political views as well.
(extracted from Rene Schwaller de Lubicz and the Intelligence of the Heart, by Gary Lachman: http://www.unitedearth.com.au/lubicz....)
Ancient Egyptian Government
Theocracy is a form of government in which God or a deity of some type is recognized as the supreme ruling authority, giving divine guidance to human intermediaries that manage the day to day affairs of the government. Thus the meaning of the word in Greek was "rule by god s " or human incarnation s of god s. The term was initially coined by Flavius Josephus in the first century A. Josephus argued that while mankind had developed many forms of rule, most could be subsumed under the following three types: monarchy , oligarchy , and democracy. The government of the Jews, however, was unique. Josephus offered the term "theocracy" to describe this polity, ordained by Moses, in which God is sovereign and his word is law.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities believed to be present in, and in control of, the world. Rituals such as prayer and offerings were provided to the gods to gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaohs , the rulers of Egypt, believed to possess a divine power by virtue of their position. They acted as intermediaries between their people and the gods, and were obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain Ma'at , the order of the cosmos. The state dedicated enormous resources to religious rituals and to the construction of temples.