About the french revolution summary
The Days of the French Revolution by Christopher Hibbert
Marie Antoinette. Napoleon. Louis XVI. Robespierre, Danton, Mirabeau, Marat. Madame Rolands salon. A passionate throng of Parisian artisans storming the Bastille. A tide of ebullient social change through wars, riots, beheadings, betrayal, conspiracy, and murder.
CHRISTOPHER HIBBERT was born in Leicester in 1924 and educated at Radley and Oriel College, Oxford. Described by the New Statesman as a pearl of biographers, he has established himself as a leading popular historian whose works reflect meticulous scholarship and has written more than twenty-five histories and biographies. Married with three children, he lives in Oxfordshire.
The French Revolution - OverSimplified (Part 1)
Summary of the French Revolution
International: struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state. Social antagonisms between two rising groups: the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie. Ineffective ruler: Louis XVI. Economic hardship, especially the agrarian crisis of generates popular discontent and disorders caused by food shortages. Dual or multiple sovereignty is the identifying feature of a revolutionary situation - the fragmentation of an existing polity into two or more blocs, each of which exercises control over some part of the government and lays claim to its exclusive control over the government. A revolutionary situation continues until a single, sovereign polity is reconstituted. Revolutionary Process or Stages :.
The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions. The first of the general causes was the social structure of the West. The feudal regime had been weakened step-by-step and had already disappeared in parts of Europe. The increasingly numerous and prosperous elite of wealthy commoners—merchants, manufacturers, and professionals, often called the bourgeoisie —aspired to political power in those countries where it did not already possess it. The peasants , many of whom owned land, had attained an improved standard of living and education and wanted to get rid of the last vestiges of feudalism so as to acquire the full rights of landowners and to be free to increase their holdings.
The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history , triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history. The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. It attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were heavily regressive.
What Is the Third Estate?
French Revolution in 9 Minutes
Beginning in , the French Revolution saw the French people overthrow their absolute monarchy and bring about a republic that was based on the principles of equality, liberty and fraternity. Before the French Revolution, French society was structured in the relics of feudalism , in a system known as the Estates System. Usually a person remained in one estate for his or her lifetime, and any movement from upwards in the estate system could take many generations. The first estate was the clergy, the second estate was the nobility and the third estate was the peasants. By , this began to cause anger amongst the peasant class, as many of them began to question the authority of their monarch, Louis XVI.