Critically examine forsters views on tolerance
6.11 · 3,443 ratings · 533 reviews
Two Cheers for Democracy by E.M. ForsterEssential Forster. As an essayist E.M. Forster is every bit the equal of George Orwell.
Three Anti-Nazi Broadcasts: 1. Culture and Freedom 2. What has Germany done to the Germans? 3. What would Germany do to Us? 1940
The Menace to Freedom
and What I Believe
These essays and broadcasts were written of its time, on the experience of the time (1936 to 1951) and still illuminate universal principles that one can identify in any era.
The essay Tolerance and What I Believe are very relevant to the political climate in this era.
What I Believe p.75 - 84 One must be fond of people and trust them if one is not to make a mess of life, and therefore essential that they should not let one down. They often do. The moral of which is that I must, myself, be as reliable as possible, and this I try to be. But reliability is not a matter of contract - that is the main difference between the world of personal relationships and the world of business relationships. It is a matter for the heart, which signs no documents. [ ] Democracy is not a Beloved Republic really, and never will be. But it is less hateful than other contemporary forms of government, and to that extent it deserves our support.
The Three Anti-Nazi Broadcasts are very good. One aspect Forster focuses on is the comparison of censorship under the Nazis to the freedom of the Democracies. While reading, the inconsistency of banning D.H. Lawrences writing came to mind, which Mr. Forster doesnt mention.
Culture and Freedom p. 43. So here are two of my reasons for believing that freedom is necessary for culture. The third reason concerns the general public. The public, on its side, must be free to read, to listen, to look. If it is prevented from receiving the communications which the artist sends it, it becomes inhibited, like him, though in a different way: it remains iimmature. And immaturity is a great characteristic of the public in Nazi Germany. If you look at a photograph of our enemies they may strike you as able and brave and formidable, even heroic. But they will not strike you as grown up. They have not been allowed to hear, to listen, or to look. Only people who have been allowed to practice freedom can have the grown-up look in their eyes.
And here is a paragraph from the third broadcast, What Would Germany Do To Us?
In the end, they might achieve world domination and institute a culture. But what sort of culture would it be? What would they have to work with? For you cannot go on destroying lives and living processes without destroying your own life. If you continue to be greedy and dense, if you make power and not understanding your aim, if, as a French friend of mine puts it, you erect a pyramid of appetites on a foundation of stupidity, you kill the impulse to create. Creation is disinterested. Creation means passionate understanding. Creation lies at the heart of civilization like fire in the heart of the earth. Around it are gathered its cooler allies, criticism, the calm use of the intellect, informing the mass and moulding it into shape. The intellect is not everything - the Nazis are quite right there. But no one can insult the intellect as they do without becoming sterile and cruel. We know their cruelty. We should see their sterility if this orgy of destruction were to stop, and they turned at their Fuehrers command to the production of masterpieces.
There is so much more to recommend in Two Cheers for Democracy.
What Were E.M. Forster's Views On Tolerance?
Your Google Plus Profile is going away. Contact via Face Book if interested. I pasted a website that might be helpful to you: DigitalEssay. Saturday, September 20, E M Forster Essay.